For Better and Ever

Geography Syllabus

Semester Paper Name of Paper T/P Sem. Ex Cont. Ass Total
I I Physical Geography

(Lithosphere)

Theory 75 25 100
II II Physical Geography

(Atmosphere & Hydrosphere)

Theory 75 25 100
III III World Regional Geography Theory 55 15 100
Practical 20 10
IV IV Human Geography Theory 55 15 100
Practical 20 10
V V Geography of India Theory 55 15 100
Practical 20 10
VI Economic Geography Theory 55 15 100
Practical 20 10
VII Geomorphology Theory 55 15 100
Practical 20 10
VIII

(Optional)

A : Population Geography Theory 75 25 100
B : Agricultural Geography Theory 75 25 100
VI IX Introduction to Geographical Thought Theory 75 25 100
X Introduction to Remote Sensing & GIS Theory 55 15 100
Practical 20 10
XI Project Work with Practical Practical 75 25 100
XII

(Optional)

A : Geography of Resource Development Theory 75 15 100
B : Regional Geography of Mizoram Theory 75 25 100

 

 

Paper – I       :           PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

        (Lithosphere)

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 75 25 100 40 3
Practical
Total 75 25 100 40 3

 

Objectives    :

 

The objectives of this course are to introduce the latest concepts in physical geography and their applied significance to the students of geography in brief but adequate manner.  The teachers are also expected to acquaint the students with allied concepts in the field of geomorphology.

The examiner is to set ten (10) multiple choice questions carrying one (1) mark each and ten (10) short answer questions carrying two (2) marks each giving equal weightage on the entire syllabus; and five (5) long answer questions carrying fifteen (15) marks each selecting at least one (1) from each unit. The student is required to answer all the multiple choice and short answer questions along with any three (3) long answer questions.

 

UNIT-I

  1. The nature and scope of Physical Geography; Relationship of Geography with other branches of earth sciences.
  2. Geological time scale.
  3. Rocks-Origin and Composition.

 

UNIT-II

  1. Earth movements – Orogenic and epeirogenic.
  2. Earth’s Interior.
  3. Theory of Continental drift.

 

UNIT-III

  1. Plate tectonics.
  2. Earthquakes and Volcanoes
  3. Weathering-Types and Processes.

 

UNIT-IV

  1. Denudation- Erosion, Transportation, Deposition.
  2. Folding and Faulting.
  3. Mass wasting.

 

UNIT-V

 

  1. Evolution of Landscape- Concept of cycle of erosion
  2. Fluvial and Arid Landscape.
  3. Evolution of Drainage systems – Types and pattern.

Paper – II      :           PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

                                    (Atmosphere & Hydrosphere)

 

Objectives    :

 

The objectives of this course are to introduce the latest concepts in physical geography and their applied significance to the students of geography in brief but adequate manner.  The teachers are also expected to acquaint the students with allied concepts in the field of climatology and hydrology.

 

The examiner is to set ten (10) multiple choice questions carrying one (1) mark each and ten (10) short answer questions carrying two (2) marks each giving equal weightage on the entire syllabus; and five (5) long answer questions carrying fifteen (15) marks each selecting at least one (1) from each unit. The student is required to answer all the multiple choice and short answer questions along with any three (3) long answer questions.

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 75 25 100 40 3
Practical
Total 75 25 100 40 3

 

UNIT-I

  1. Composition and Structure of Atmosphere.
  2. Insolation and Global energy budget.
  3. Distribution of Temperature.
  4. Atmospheric Pressure and Winds; Planetary periodic and local winds.

 

UNIT-II

  1. Hydrological cycle.
  2. Airmass and Fronts.
  3. Atmospheric disturbances: Tropical and Temperate cycles.

 

UNIT-III

  1. Rainfall: Regional and Seasonal distribution.
  2. Climatic Classification: Basis of Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s, Trewartha’s classification.
  3. Atmospheric Pollution and Global warming- General causes and effects.

 

UNIT-IV

  1. Distribution of Seas and Oceans.
  2. Surface configuration of the Ocean Floor; Continental Shelf, Continental slope, Abyssal plain, Oceanic Trenches.
  3. Relief of Indian Ocean.

 

UNIT-V

  1. Distribution of Temperature and Salinity of Oceans and Seas.
  2. Circulation of Oceanic water: Tides, Waves and Ocean Currents – Warm and Cold.
  3. Marine deposits.
  4. Coral reefs: Types and Origin.

 

Suggested  Readings  for paper I & II:

  1. Dayal, P. (1996)  :  A Text book of Geomorphology;  Shukla Book Depot, Patna, 1996.
  2. Dury, G.H. (1980) : The face of the Earth, Penguins.
  3. Kale, V and Gupta, A (2001)  :  Elements of Geomorphology, Oxford Univ. Press, Kolkata.
  4. Mankhouse, F.J. (1960)  :  Principles of Physical Geography; Hodder and Stoughton, London.
  5. Singh, S. (1998)  :  Geomorphology; Prayag Pustakalaya, Allahabad, 1998.
  6. Sparks, B.W. (1960)  :  Geomorphology, Longmans, London, 1960.
  7. Stratler, A.N. and Stratler, A.H. (1992)  :  Modern Physical Geography, John Wiley & Sons.( Revised)
  8. Thornbury, W.D. (1969)  :  Principles of Geomorphology, Wiley Eastern.
  9. Burchfield, B.Clark, Foster Robert J; et al (1980)  :  Physical Geology, Charles E. Merril, Columbus.
  10. Bloom, Arthur L. (1998)  :  Geomorphology, Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. 1998.
  11. Bryant Richard H. (2001)  :  Physical Geography, Rupa & Co., New Delhi, 2001.
  12. King, C.A.M. (1980)  :  Physical Geography, Blackwell, Oxford, 1980.
  13. Bradshaw, M.J., et al. (1978)  :  The Earth’s Changing Surface, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1978.
  14. Hanwell, J. (1980)  :  Atmospheric Processes, Allen and Unwin, London, 1980.
  15. Lockwood, J.G. (1978)  :  The Causes of Climate, Edward Arnold, London, 1978.
  16. Trewartha, G.T. & Horn, L.A. (1980)  :  An Introduction to Climate, International Series, New Delhi.
  17. Critchfield, H.J. (1975)  :  General Climatology, Prentice Hall, India.
  18. Lal, D.S. (1986)  :  Climatology; Chaitanya Pub. House, Allahabad.
  19. Sharma, R.C.  :  Oceanography for Geographers.
  20. Hussain, Majid (2002)  :  Geomorphology, Rawat Publication.
  21. Garrison, T. (1995)  :  Essentials of Oceanography.
  22. King, C.A.N. (1962)  :  Oceanography for Geographers.

 

Paper – III    :           WORLD REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 55 15 70 28 3
Practical 20 10 30 12 3
Total 75 25 100 40 6

 

Objectives    :

The objectives of this course are to give an overview of the land, people and economy of the different countries of the world, so that the students are aware of their neighbours as well as other countries located in distant realms.  In this process, the students would be abreast of the diverse geographical processes, in the ambits of which economic development of various countries of the world have evolved.

The examiner is requested to set ten (10) questions two (2) questions from each unit) carrying eleven (11) marks each.  The students are required to answer five questions selecting one question from each unit.

 

UNIT-I

Asia :

  1. Physiography, climate, natural vegetation,
  2. Mineral resources, agriculture, industry,
  3. Population- growth & distribution.

 

UNIT-II

Europe :

  1. Physiography, climate, natural vegetation,
  2. Mineral resources, agriculture, industry,
  3. Population- growth & distribution.

 

UNIT-III

Anglo America :

  1. Physiography, climate, natural vegetation,
  2. Mineral resources, agriculture, industry,
  3. Population- growth & distribution.

 

UNIT-IV

Latin America :

  1. Physiography, climate, natural vegetation,
  2. Mineral resources, agriculture, industry,
  3. Population- growth & distribution.

 

UNIT-V

Africa :

  1. Physiography, climate, natural vegetation,
  2. Mineral resources, agriculture, industry,
  3. Population- growth & distribution.

 

PRACTICAL PAPER-III

 

The examiner is to set three (3) questions selecting at least one (1) from Sl. No. 1,2,3 carrying five (5) marks each. The students are required to answer all the questions.

 

  1. Scales:  Types of scales, drawing of simple, graphical and comparative scales. 5 Marks
  2. Representation of relief features by contours and profiles- concave slope, convex slope, cliff, waterfall, v-shaped valley, river meander, ox-bow lakes and Ria coast.   5 Marks
  3. Conventional signs and symbols; interpretation of toposheets in respect of relief, drainage, human settlements, transport networks.  5 Marks
  4. Practical note book and viva-voce.       3 + 2 = 5 marks

 

Suggested  Readings  :

 

  1. Cole, J. (1996)  :  A Geography of the World’s Major RegionsRoutledge, London.
  2. Cole, J.P. (1975)  :  Latin America – Economic and Social Geography, Butterworth, U.S.A.
  3. Dickenson, J.P. et al. (1996)  :  The Geography of the Third WorldRoutledge, London.
  4. Jackson, R.H. and Hudman, L.E. (1991)  :  World Regional Geography : Issues for Today, John Wiley, New York.
  5. Ward, P.W. and Miller, A. (1989)  :  World Regional Geography, John Wiley, New York.
  6. Clawson, D.L. (1998)  :  World Regional Geography.
  7. Minshull, G.N. (1984)  :  Western Europe, Hoddard & Stoughton, New York.
  8. Hussain, M.(  )  :  World Geography, Rawat, Jaipur.

 

Paper – IV     :           HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 55 15 70 28 3
Practical 20 10 30 12 3
Total 75 25 100 40 6

 

Objectives    :

 

The objectives of this course are to acquaint the students with the nature of man-environment relationship and human capability to adopt and modify the environment under its varied condition, identify and understand environment and population in terms of their quality and spatial distribution pattern, and to comprehend the contemporary issues facing the global community.

 

The examiner is requested to set ten (10) questions two (2) questions from each unit) carrying eleven (11) marks each.  The students are required to answer five questions selecting one question from each unit.

 

UNIT – I

  1. Nature and scope of human geography
  2. Evolution of human geography
  3. Man- Environment relationship- determinism, possibilism and neo-determinism.

 

  1. Early steps in human progress- Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic ages
  2. Concept of Race; Basis of racial classification ( Haddon and G. Taylor)
  3. Races of India (Guha).

 

UNIT- III

  1. Tribal, religious and linguistic groups of India.
  2. Human adaptation to the environment: (i) cold region- the Eskimos, (ii) hot region – Bushman, (iii) plateau region- Masai and (iv) mountainous region- the Gujjars
  1. Growth of world population – regional growth pattern.
  2. World distribution of population- major agglomerations and sparsely populated areas.
  3. Population migration- internal and international.
  4. Population resource regions.

 

PRACTICAL PAPER – IV

The examiner is to set three (3) questions selecting at least one (1) from Sl. No. 1, 2, 3 carrying five (5) marks each. The students are required to answer all the questions.

 

  1. Weather symbols; interpretation of Indian weather maps for the months of July/August and December/January. 5 Marks.
  2. Cartograms- representation of Temperature, pressure and Rainfall data by line and by graphs, drawing of Climographs and Hythergraphs – their significance and interpretation. 5 Marks.
  3. Measure of Central Tendency; Co-efficent of variation, Scatter diagram and rank correlation coefficient. 5 Marks
  4. Practical note book and viva-voce.  3 + 2 = 5Marks

Suggested Readings  :

 

  1. Hammand  :  Human Geography.
  2. Robinson, H.  :  Human Geography.
  3. Hussain, M. (1994)  :  Human Geography, Rawat Publication, Jaipur.
  4. Garnier, B.  :  Human Geography.
  5. Hagget, P. (1975)  :  Geography : A Modern Synthesis, Happer & Raw, N.Y.
  6. Boek, J.O.M. (1978)  :  A Geography of Mankind, McGraw Hill, N.Y.
  7. Rubenstein, J.M. (2002)  :  Cultural Landscape : Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, New Delhi.
  8. DeBlij (1996)  :  Human Geography, John Wiley, N.Y.
  9. Perpillon, A.V. (1986)  :  Human Geography (2nd Ed.); Longman, N.Y.
  10. Michael, Can. (1997)  :  New Patterns and Change in Human Geography, Nelson
  11. Mc Bride, P.J (1986) ; Human Geography Systems, Patterns and Changing.

 

Paper – V      :           GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 55 15 70 28 3
Practical 20 10 30 12 3
Total 75 25 100 40 6

 

Objectives :

 

The course is aimed at presenting a comprehensive, integrated and empirically based profile of India.  Besides, the objective is to highlight the linkages of systematic geography of India with the regional personality of the country.  The course is designed so as to present the role of the geographical positioning of India in molding its geographical personality and its inter-relations with other countries.

The examiner is requested to set ten (10) questions two (2) questions from each unit) carrying eleven (11) marks each.  The students are required to answer five questions selecting one question from each unit.

UNIT-I

  1. India – a land of unity  within diversities,
  2.  Physical features
  3. Drainage systems of India and their geographical significance

 

UNIT-II

  1. Climatic regions of India;
  2. Soil types and their distribution and characteristics,
  3. Natural vegetation, agricultural regions and green revolution impacts.

 

UNIT-III

  1. Minerals; Iron ore and bauxite,
  2. Power resources : coal , petroleum and hydro-electricity
  3. Industrial  regions of India

 

UNIT-IV

  1. Spatial distribution population
  2. socio-economic implications of rapid population growth
  3. Urbanization: trends and impacts

 

UNIT-V

  1. Northeast India : Physical environment
  2. Resource base and culture
  3. Environmental issues: Landslides, Jhuming , flood etc.

 

PRACTICAL PAPER – V

 

The examiner is to set three (3) questions selecting at least one (1) from Sl. No. 1,2,3 carrying five (5) marks each. The students are required to answer all the questions.

 

  1. Reduction and enlargement of maps; Combination of maps of two different scales.
  2. General principles of map projections and their classification; drawing of graticules (graphical method) on simple cylindrical, cylindrical equal area and conical projections with one and two standard parallels and zenithal projection (polar case) with their merits, demerit and uses. 5 Marks.
  3. Survey by chain and tape, plotting and interpretation of the surveyed map.  5 Marks.
  4. Practical note book and viva-voce.  3 + 2 = 5Marks.

 

Suggested  Readings  :

  1. Spate, O.H.K. and Learmonth, A.T.A. (1968) : India and Pakistan, Methuen, London.
  2. Singh, R.L. (Ed.) )1972)  :  India – A Regional Geography, Varanasi.
  3. Singh, Jagdish, (2003)  :  India, Gyanedaya Prakashan, Gorakhpur.
  4. Sharma, R.C. (2004)  :  Geography of India, Jawahar Pub. & Distributor, N. Delhi.
  5. Pachuau, Rintluanga (1994)  :  Geography of Mizoram, R.T. Enterprise, Aizawl.
  6. Pachuau, Rintluanga (2009) : Mizoram : A Study of Comprehensive Geography, Northern Book Centre, New Delhi.
  7. Tirtha, R & Krishna, G. (1996)  :  Emerging India.
  8.  Nadkarni, M.V. (1991)  :  India : The Emerging Challenges, Bangalore.
  9.  Sengupta, P. & Sdasyuk, G. (     )  :  Economic Regionalization of India.
  10.  Tiwari, R.T.and Joshi, A. (Eds.) : Development and Change in India, Ashish,
  11. Srinivas, M.N. (   )  :  Social Change in Modern India, Orient Longman, Delhi.
  12.  Gopal Krishnan, R. (1994)  :  Geographic Perspectives on N.E. India.
  13.  Singh, Gopal (   )  :  Geography of India.
  14.  Gopalkrishnan, R. (1996)  :  Meghalaya : Land and People, Omsen, New Delhi.
  15.  Taher, M & Ahmed, A. (1998)  :  Geography of N.E. India, Eldorado Guwahati.
  16.  Deshpande, C.D. (1990)  :  India : A Regional Interpretation, ICSSR, New Delhi

 

Paper – VI     :           ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 55 15 70 28 3
Practical 20 10 30 12 3
Total 75 25 100 40 6

 

Objectives :

 

The basic economy of the world is undergoing rapid transformation in recent times. The process of such transformation of economic activities from primary to secondary and tertiary sage is dynamic in nature. In view of this, the objectives of this course are to integrate the various factors of economic development and to acquaint the students about this dynamic aspect of economic geography.

 

The examiner is requested to set ten (10) questions two (2) questions from each unit) carrying eleven (11) marks each.  The students are required to answer five questions selecting one question from each unit.

 

UNIT-I

  1. Nature and scope of economic geography.
  2. Classification of economists: developed and developing.
  3. Sectors of economy- primary, secondary, tertiary.

 

UNIT-II

  1. Classification of resources – soils, minerals, water.
  2. Classification of minerals: ferrous (iron ore) and non-ferrous (copper and bauxite) and world production and distribution.
  3. Power resources- coal and petroleum.

 

UNIT-III

  1. Agricultural location theory- Vonthunen,
  2. Major industries-cotton textile, oil refinery;
  3.  World industrial region

 

UNIT-IV

  1. Factors of location of industry- Weber/s theory of industrial location.
  2. World production and distribution of iron and steel industry

 

UNIT-V

  1. International trade- volume, composition and direction
  2. World Trade Organization and Globalization and their effects on the developing countries of the world.

PRACTICAL PAPER – VI

The examiner is to set three (3) questions selecting at least one (1) from Sl. No. 1, 2, 3 carrying five (5) marks each. The students are required to answer all the questions.

 

  1. Types of cartographic symbols and their uses: point (Dots), proportional circles (Sphere), lines (Isopleths, Flowlines), (Choropleths); Representation of population, production other statistical data. 5 Marks.
  2. Time series analysis (simple and moving average) and Index numbers.  5 Marks.
  3. Surveying by plane table (intersection and radial methods, plotting and interpretation of the surveyed map.  5 Marks.
  4. Practical note book and viva-voce. 3 + 2 = 5Marks.

Suggested Readings  :

  1. Hartshorne, T.N. and Alexander, J.W. (1988)  :  Economic Geography, Prentice hall, New Delhi.
  2. Guha & Chatterjee, (1998)  :  A New Approach to Economic Geography, World Press, Kolkata.
  3. Hagget, P. (1975)  :  Geography : A Modern Synthesis.
  4. Roy, P.K. (2001)  :  An Economic Geographical Analysis, John Wiley, New York.
  5. Thomas, R.S.(1962)  :  The Geography of Economic Activities, McGraw Hill, New York.
  6. Goh Cheng Leon & Morgan, G.C. (1970)  :  Regional Economics, Penguin, U.K.
  7. Richardson, H.W.(1970)  :  Regional Economics, New York.

Paper – VII   :           GEOMORPHOLOGY

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 55 15 70 28 3
Practical 20 10 30 12 3
Total 75 25 100 40 6

 

Objectives :

 

The objectives of this paper is to acquaint the students with the concepts in geomorphology, geomorphic processes and techniques of their analysis and their applied significance.

 

The examiner is requested to set ten (10) questions two (2) questions from each unit) carrying eleven (11) marks each.  The students are required to answer five questions selecting one question from each unit.

 

 

UNIT – I

  1. Nature and scope of Geomorphology;
  2. Fundamental concepts related to – uniformitarianism, process, climate, stage of time, complexity of landform (based on Thornbury)
  3. Recent trends in Geomorphology

 

UNIT – II

  1. Mass wasting : types/classification, slope elements ,causes, resultant landforms
  2. Weathering : types, classification, causes and resultant landforms
  3. Denudation chronology and erosion surface –  paneplain, pediplain and panplain

 

UNIT – III

  1. Processes of erosion,
  2. Transportation and deposition and resultant landforms in fluvial, arid, glacial, karst  and coastal regions

 

UNIT – IV

  1. River basin and network characteristics
  2. Drainage network, system and pattern
  3. Process of slope formation, elements and classifications.

 

UNIT – V

  1. Meaning and concepts of applied geomorphology
  2. Geomorphology and agriculture, road construction
  3. Geomorphology and urbanization, environmental management

 

 

PRACTICAL PAPER – VII

 

The examiner is to set three (3) questions selecting at least one (1) from Sl. No. 1,2,3 carrying five (5) marks each. The students are required to answer all the questions.

 

  1. Preparation and analysis of average slope map, drainage density and drainage frequency map. 5 Marks
  2. Drawing of profiles- simple, cross, superimposed, projected and composite profiles. 5 Marks.
  3. Surveying by prismatic compass (open and closed traverse) and Indian clinometers and mapping and interpretation of the surveyed area. 5 Marks.
  4. Practical note book and viva-voce.  3 + 2 = 5Marks.

 

Suggested Readings  :

 

  1. Dayal, P. (1996)  :  A Text Book. of Geomorphology, Shukla Book Depot, Patna.
  2. Dury, G.H.(1980)  :  The Face of the Earth, Penguin.
  3. Earnst, W.G. (2000)  :  Earth Systems-Process and Issues, Cambridge Univ. Press.
  4. Kale V. & Gupta, A. (2001)  :  Elements of Geomorphology, OUP, Kolkata.
  5. Singh, S. (1998)  :  Geomorphology, Prayag Pustakalaya, Allahabad.
  6. Sparks, B.W. (1960)  :  Geomorphology, Longmans.
  7. Strahler, A.N. and Strahler, A.H.  :  Modern Physical Geography, John Wiley & Sons.
  8. Thornbury, W.D. (1969)  :  Principles of Geomorphology.
  9. Burchfield, B.Clark, Foster Robert, J.et al. (1980)  :  Physical Geology, Charles E. Merril, Columbus.
  10. Bloom, Arthur L. (1998)  :  Geomorphology, Pearson Edn. (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
  11. Bryant, Richard H. (2001)  :  Physical Geography, Rupa & Co., New Delhi.
  12. Mitchell, C.W.(1973)  :  Terrain Evaluation, Longman, London.

 

 

Paper – VIII (A)       : POPULATION GEOGRAPHY

Optional

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 75 25 100 40 3
Practical
Total 75 25 100 40 3

 

Objectives :

 

The course is meant to provide an understanding of spatial and structural dimensions of population and the emerging issues. The course is further aimed at familiarizing the students with global and regional level problems and also equip them for comprehending the Indian situation.

The examiner is to set ten (10) questions selecting two (2) from each unit, carrying 15 marks. The students are required to answer five (5) questions selecting one (1) from each unit.

 

UNIT – I

  1. Nature and scope of population geography;
  2. Source of population data;
  3. Concepts of over population, under population and optimum population; Zero population growth.

 

UNIT – II

  1. Spatial pattern of population – distribution and density;
  2. Determinants of Population Growth;
  3. World regional pattern, the Indian scene

 

UNIT – III

  1. Composition of population: Age and sex composition, Rural-urban composition.
  2. World regional patterns – developed and developing countries;
  3. Composition of population in India.

 

UNIT – IV

  1. Migration : types, causes and consequences;
  2. World regional patterns of migration, migration in India;

 

UNIT – V

  1. Population – resource relationship and the role of technology;
  2. Population and environment interface : cause-effect syndrome;
  3. India’s population policy.

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Readings  :

 

  1. Beaujeu-Garnier, J. (1966)  :  Geography of Population (Translated by Beaver, S.H.), Longmans, London.
  2. (2001)  :  Census of India 2001 Series-I India Provisional Population Totals, Published by Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India.
  3. Census of India, 1991 India  :  A State Profile, Published by office of the Registrar General of India, Census Operations, New Delhi.
  4. Chandna, R.C. (2000)  :  Geography of Population : Concepts, Determinants and Patterns, Kalayani Publishers, New Delhi.
  5. Clark, J.I. (1965)  :  Population Geography, Permagon Press, New York.
  6. Sundram, K.V. & Nangia Sudesh, (editors) (1986)  : Population Geography, Heritage Publishers, Delhi.
  7. Peters : G.L. and Larkim R.P. (1979)  :  Population Geography : Problems, Concepts and Prospects, Kendele-Hunt Iowa.
  8. Srinivasan, K. and M. Vlassoff (2001)  :  Population Development nexus in India : Challenges for the new millennium, Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co. Ltd., N.D.
  9. Trewartha, G.T. (1969)  :  A Geography of Population : World Patterns, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
  10. Trewartha, G.T. (1978) : The More Developed Realm : A Geography of its Population, Pergamon Press, Oxford.

 

 

 

 

 

Paper – VIII (B)       : AGRICULTURAL GEOGRAPHY

Optional

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 75 25 100 40 3
Practical
Total 75 25 100 40 3

 

Objectives :

 

  • To familiarize the students with the concept, origin and development of agriculture; to examine the role if agricultural determinants toward changing cropping patterns, intensity, productivity, diversification and specialization.  The course also aims to acquaint the students with the application of various theories, models and classification schemes of cropping pattern and productivity.
  • Its objectives is also to discuss environmental technological and social issues in agricultural sector with special reference to India.

 

The examiner is to set ten (10) questions selecting two (2) from each unit, carrying 15 marks. The students are required to answer five (5) questions selecting one (1) from each unit.

 

UNIT – I

  1. Nature and scope of agricultural geography;
  2. Relationship of agricultural geography with Economics and Botany;
  3. Approaches to agricultural geography:  Commodity, Economic, Regional, Systematic and Ecological approaches.

 

UNIT – II

  1. Origin of agriculture and Diffusion of crops during the medieval and modern times.
  2. Physical and socio-economic determinants of agriculture.

 

UNIT – III

  1. Agriculture systems of the world : Nomadic herding and Livestock ranching, Commercial Grazing, Shifting Cultivation, Intensive & Extensive Agriculture, Plantation Agriculture, Dairy Farming, Mixed Farming and Truck farming.

 

UNIT –IV

  1. Agriculture regionalization : Crop concentration and crop combination region,
  2. Agricultural productivity and agricultural efficiency region with special references to India; Agro-climatic regions of India.

 

UNIT –V

  1. Indian Agriculture : Attributes of Indian agriculture;
  2. Development of agriculture in India during the Five Year Plans;
  3. Green Revolution in India – its socio-economic and ecologic implications;
  4. Agriculture development in NE Region, problems and prospects.

Suggested  Readings  :

 

  1. Bayliss Smith, T.P. (1987) : The Ecology of Agricultural Systems, Cambridge University Press, London.
  2. Berry, B.J.L. et.al. (1976)  :  The Geography of Economic Systems, Prentice Hall, New York.
  3. Dyson, T. (1996)  :  Population and Food-Global Trends and Future Prospects, Routledge, London.
  4. Gregor, H.P. (1970)  :  Geography of Agriculture, Prentice Hall, New York.
  5. Grigg, D.B. (1974)  :  The Agriculture Systems of the World, Cambridge University Press, New York.
  6. Mannion, A.M. (1995)  :  Agriculture and Environment Change, John Wiley, London.
  7. Morgan, W.B. and Norton, C. (1071)  :  Agricultural Geography, Mathuen, London.
  8. Morgan, W.B. (1978)  :  Agriculture in the Third World – A Spatial Analysis, West view Press, Boulder.
  9. Sauer, C.O. (1969)  :  Agricultural Origins and Dispersals, M.I.T. Press, Mass, U.S.A.
  10. Singh, J. and Dhillon, S.S. (1988)  :  Agricultural Geography, Tata McGraw Hill Pub., New Delhi.
  11. Tarrent, J.R. (1974)  :  Agricultural Geography, Wiley, New York.
  12. Hussain, M. (2001)  :  Agricultural Geography, Rawat Pub., Jaipur.

Paper – IX     :           INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 75 25 100 40 3
Practical
Total 75 25 100 40 3

 

Objectives :

This paper is intended to acquaint the students with distinctiveness of geography as a field of learning in social as well as natural sciences.  The teachers are expected to acquaint the students with the underlying philosophy and methodology of the subject.

 

The examiner is to set ten (10) questions selecting two (2) from each unit, carrying 15 marks. The students are required to answer five (5) questions selecting one (1) from each unit.

 

UNIT I

  1. Changing nature and scope of Geography
  2. Ancient geographical thoughts : Contributions of the Greek, the Roman, The Arabs and the Indian scholars in the growth of geographical concepts.
  3. Relevance of geography as an independent discipline

 

UNIT – II

  1. Precursors of modern geography : impact of explorations and discoveries
  2. Contributions of Varenius, Kant, Humboldt and Ritter
  3. Dualism in geography : growth and resolutions (Oschar, Paschel, Ratzel, Ritchtofen)

 

UNIT – III

  1. Geography as the study of man-environment relationship : contribution of Ratzel, Davis, Blache and Bruhnes
  2. Concepts of environmental determinism, possibilism and modernism and
  3. Darwinism and modernism in geographical explanations : Ratzel, McKinder

 

UNIT – IV

  1. Evolution of geography as chorological science : concepts of spatial organization : contributions of Hettner, Sauer and Hartshorne
  2. Critique of areal differentiation : Schaffer – Hartshorne debate
  3. Changing spatial organization themes : contributions of Anglo-American geographers – Haggett, Chorley, Bunge, Harvey

 

UNIT – V

  1. Quantitative revolution and geographical explanation
  2. Radical, humanistic and environmental approaches
  3. Emergence of post-modernism in geography

 

Suggested Readings     :

 

  1. Hartshorne,R.(2000)  :  Nature of Geography, A.A.G. Lancaster, Penn.(Indian Reprint)
  2. Hartshorne, R.(1992)  :  Perspective on the nature of Geography, Scientific Pub.,
  3. Jodhpur.
  4. Minshull, R. (1970)  :  The Changing nature of Geography, Hutchinson, London.
  5. Dickinson, R.E. (1969) :  The makers of Modern Geography, Edward Arnold, London.
  6. James, P.R. (1980 Ind. Ed.)  :  All possible World, Sachin Pub., New Delhi.
  7. Dixit, R.D. (1997)  :  Geographical Thought, Prentice Hall, New Delhi.
  8. Hagget, P. (1975)  :  Geography of Modern Synthesis, Harper & Raw, New York.
  9. Hussain, M. (2000)  :  Evolution of Geographical Thought, Rawat, Jaipur.
  10. Adhikari, S. (1998)  :  Fundamentals of Geographical Thought, Chaitanya Pub., Allahabad.
  11. Freeman, T.W. (1961)  :  A Hundred Years of Geography, Duckworth, London.
  12. Charley, Richard, J., (  )  :  Directions in Geography, Methuen, London.
  13. Peet, Richard,  (1995)  :  Modern Geographical Thought.
  14. Wooldridge, S.W. and East, G. (1955)  :  The Spirit and Purpose of Geography, Hutchinson. London.
  15. Sharma, R.C. (2000)  :  Prime Theories in Geography, Tawahar Pub., New Delhi.

 

Paper – X      :           INTRODUCTION TO REMOTE SENSING & GIS

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 55 15 70 28 3
Practical 20 10 30 12 3
Total 75 25 100 40 6

 

Objectives :

To introduce to the students both basic principles of aerial photo and satellite imagery interpretation and GIS as well as to train them in visual and digital interpretation of satellite imagery and in developing an efficient spatial data base as a support system to help in accurate analysis and better understanding of the geographical realities and rational decision making.

The examiner is requested to set ten (10) questions two (2) questions from each unit) carrying eleven (11) marks each.  The students are required to answer five (5) questions selecting one question from each unit.

 

UNIT-I

  1. History of aerial Photography.
  2. Use of aerial photographs in geographical studies.
  3. Types of aerial photographs, streograms, stereopairs.

 

UNIT-II

  1. Types and uses of stereoscopes.
  2. Geometry of aerial photographs: Fiducial marks, fiducial axis, principal point, conjugate principal point, flightline.
  3. Overlap, sidelap, block of aerial photography

 

UNIT-III

  1. Uses of parallaxbar (Stereometer)
  2. Determination of photo  scale and measurement techniques of area coverage
  3. Elements of air photo/image interpretation

 

UNIT-IV

  1. Basic concepts of remote sensing:  physical basis, platforms, satellite orbits, sensors,
  2. Geo-synchronous and Sun-synchronous satellites
  3. Application of remote sensing technology in geographical studies.

 

UNIT-V

  1. Introduction to basic concepts, components and definitions of GIS.
  2. Relevance of GIS technology in geographical studies.
  3. Representation of geographic data.
  4. Cartography and GIS

PRACTICAL PAPER – X

 

The examiner is to set three (3) questions selecting at least one (1) from Sl. No. 1,2,3 carrying five (5) marks each. The students are required to answer all the questions.

 

 

  1. Geometry of aerial photographs- marking fiducial marks, fiducial axis, principal point, conjugate principal point, flightline. 5 Marks
  2. Photo reading and interpretation of stereograms for geomorphic features. 5 Marks
  3. Determination of photo scale of airphotos. 5 Marks
  4. Practical note book and viva-voce. 3+2 = Marks

 

Suggested Readings  :  

 

  1. Leuder, D.R.(1959) : Aerial Photographic Interpretation : Principles and Applications, McGraw Hill, New York.
  2. Reeves, R.G.(1983) : Manual of Remote Sensing, Vols. I & II, American Society of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, Falls Church.
  3.  Lillesand, T.M. & Kiefer, R.W. (1987) : Remote Sensing & Image Interpretation, John Wiley, New York.
  4. Curran, P.J. (1985) : Principles of Remote Sensing, Longman, London.
  5.  Deekshatulu, B.L. & Rajan, Y.S. (1984) : Remote Sensing, Indian Academy of Science, Bangalore.
  6. Floyd F. Sabins, (1986) : Remote Sensing : Principles and Interpretation, Freeman, New York.
  7. Rao, D.P. (1998) : Remote Sensing for Earth Resources, Association of Exploration Geophysicist, Hyderabad.
  8. Barrett, E.C. and Curtis, L.F. (1992) : Fundamentals of Remote Sensing and Air Photo Interpretation, McMillan, New York.
  9. Campbell, J.B. (2002) : Introduction to Remote Sensing, Guilford Press, New York.
  10. Chang, Kang-tsung, (2002) : Introduction to Geographic Information Systems, Tata-McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.
  11. Longley, P.A. (2001) : Geographic Information Systems : PrinciplesTechniquesApplications and Management, John Wiley, New York.
  12. DeMers, M.N. (2000) : Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems, John Wiley, New York.
  13. Burrough, P.A. (1986) : Principles of Geographic Information Systems, OUP, Oxford.

Paper – XI     :           PROJECT WORK & PRACTICAL

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Practical 75 25 100 40 3
Total 75 25 100 40 3

 

The candidates are expected to study a village, an urban ward or a small town for a period not exceeding one week and prepare a report (to be typed at A4 size, containing about 40 pages) on a theme assigned to them connected with their optional papers.  The project report is expected to reflect some original interpretation of the theme based on field observations.  The concerned department (College) must assign a supervisor and the topic be decided at the end of the fourth semester to enable the student to put in the required time to complete the project report. (The project work will carry thirty (30) marks, twenty (20) marks for report and ten (10) marks for viva voce.

 

While conducting survey for field report, students are to incorporate the following surveys. The survey works are to be recorded in the practical note book separately.

 

  1. Theodelite Survey : Field techniques, reading of horizontal

and vertical angles and mapping.                                                    –           10 marks

  1. Road profiling by Dumpy level and plotting the map.                  –           10 marks
  2. Plane Table Survey (three point problem)                                                –           10 marks
  3. Practical Note Book.                                                                                     –           10 marks
  4. Viva Voce                                                                                           –           5 marks

 

(The examiner will set two (2) from the first three surveys. Sl. No. 4&5 is compulsory)

 

Paper – XII(A)         :          GEOGRAPHY OF RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Optional

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 75 25 100 40 3
Practical
Total 75 25 100 40 3

 

Objectives :

 

The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of resource geography and its interface with environment, citing examples, as far as possible, from Mizoram.  The course aims to provide an understanding of the existing reality of resource utilization and environment depletion; further aims to sensitize the students to the concept of sustainable resource use and sustainable development.

 

The examiner is requested to set ten (10) questions two (2) questions from each unit carrying fifteen (15) marks each.  The students are required to answer five questions selecting one question from each unit.

 

UNIT – I

  1. Definition, growth and scope of resource geography
  2. Classification of resources : bases and typology
  3. Man-environment-technology interrelations with respect to population and types of economy; temporal and spatial evolution of human culture.

 

UNIT – II

  1. Spatial distribution, production and utilization of resources : abiotic (land, water, mineral-tin, manganese); biotic (forest, wildlife, livestock, fisheries, agricultural crops (food, cash and plantation crops)
  2. Mineral and energy resources : distribution, production and utilization with reference to tin, manganese, mica, non-conventional sources of energy (nuclear, geo-thermal, solar and wind resources)
  3. Natural resource region, human resource region and resource region of the world.

 

UNIT – III

  1. Resource utilization and impact on environment, deforestation, mining, agricultural practices – primitive intensive subsistence, advanced intensive subsistence, commercial grazing, commercial farming (wheat, maize,….)
  2. Industrialization and environment : energy bases, potentials and problems.
  3. Concepts of conservation and sustainable development : limits to growth Vs technological changes.

 

UNIT – IV

  1. Resource depletion – causes and consequences.
  2. Zimmermann’s concept of stages of utilization of resources.
  3. Resource use and environmental resistance – biodiversity, conservation and resource mobilization.

 

UNIT – V

  1. Resources of North East India with special reference to Mizoram : distribution, production and utilization
  2. Fundamentals of economic activities in North eastern region of India : problems of resource transformation and its resolution.
  3. Resource management policies in Mizoram : land use and agricultural, industrial and service sectors, level of development in Mizoram

 

Suggested Readings  :

 

  1. Alexander, John, W. (1988)  :  Economic Geography, Prentice Hall, New Delhi.
  2. Hagget, P.(1975)  :  Geography : A Modern Synthesis, Harper & Raw, New York.
  3. Guha, J.L. et al. (1992)  :  A New Approach to Economic Geography, World Press.
  4. Morgan and Leong, (1990)  :  Human and Economic Geography, London.
  5. Singh, A.L. (1999)  :  Resource Management.
  6. Basik, S.C. (2000)  :  Resource Management & Contours of Development
  7. Kalwar, S.C. (2002)  :  Resources & Development.
  8. Roy, P.K. (2001)  :  Economic Geography, New Central Book Agency, Kolkata.
  9. Singh, S. (2003)  :  Environment, Locational Decisions & Planning
  10. Mohapatra, A.C. (2003)  :  Economic Liberalization & Regional Disparities in India.
  11. Singh, J. (2001)  :  Resource Geography.
  12. Wheeler, J.O. (1995)  :  Perspectives in Resource Management in Developing Countries.
  13. Pachuau, Rintluanga (1994) : Geography  of Mizoram, RT Enterprise, Aizawl
  14. Singh, R.B. (1988)  :  Studies in Environment & Development, Rakesh Prakashan, Varanasi.
  15. Zimmermann, E.W. (1951)  :  World Resources and Industries, Harper, N.Y.

 

Paper – XII(B)         : REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF MIZORAM

Optional

 

Mark Distribution
  Semester Exam Cont. Asses Total Pass Mark Examination Duration
Theory 75 25 100 40 3
Practical
Total 75 25 100 40 3

 

Objectives :

 

To impart knowledge about the salient features of the regional geography, habit, economy and identify of the tribal state of Mizoram. To help the student in analyzing the resource bases, cultural transformation and to enable them to present a systematic analysis of the region’s characteristics.

 

The examiner is requested to set ten (10) questions two (2) questions from each unit) carrying fifteen (15) marks each.  The students are required to answer five questions selecting one question from each unit.

 

UNIT – I

  1. History and evolution of settlements in Mizoram : factors effecting type and pattern of settlement
  2. Political geography of Mizoram

 

UNIT – II

  1. Location, area and administrative divisions of Mizoram
  2. Physical aspects – geology, relief, drainage, climate, soil and vegetation
  3. Socio-cultural aspects of Mizoram – culture, language, religion and ethnic groups, etc.
  4. Population characteristics : population growth, density, sex ratio, occupational structure

 

UNIT – III

  1. Rural-urban settlement, rural urban population and migration
  2. Economic profile of the state economic activities – agriculture, land use, small scale and cottage industries, transport.

 

UNIT – IV

  1. Natural resources – forestry, water, minerals
  2. Development and social transformation of the Mizo societies : religion, education, urbanization, occupation, etc.

 

Suggested Reading :

  1. Bose et.al. (eds) (1990) : Tribal Demography and Development in North East India, The Assn. for Study of Population, Delhi.
  2. Census of India Publications, 1961, 1971, 1981 , 1991 and 2001 (Various Series and Volumes).
  3. Chaltuahkhuma (1987): History of Mizoram (in Mizo), R.D. Press Aizawl.
  4. Chatterji, N. (1973) : The Mizo Chief and His Administration, Tribal Research Institute, Mizoram, A izawl.
  5. Gopalakrisnan, R. (1991) : The North East India Land, Economy and People, New Delhi.
  6. Hrangthiauva and Lalchungnunga (1978) : Mizo Chanchin (History and Culture of the Mizos) (in Mizo), Aizawl.
  7. La Tauche (1891): Note on the Geology of Lushai Hills, Record of OS I, Vol XXIV, part 2, 1891.
  8. Lewin, T.H. (1844) : A Fly On The Wheel or How I Helped to Govern India, W.H. Allen & Co. Pallmall.
  9. Liangkhaia (1976) : Mizo Chanchin (in Mizo), Mizo Academy of Letters, Fourth Edition. Aizawl.
  10. ……………(2008): Mizoram Forest 2006, Department of Environment and Forests, Gov’t of Mizoram, Aizawl.
  11. Nandy, Mukerjee and Mazumder (1972) : “Geological Mapping and Mineral Survey in Parts of Mizoram”, Progress Report for 1971-72 Field Season. GSI.
  12. Nunthara, C. (1989) : The Impact of Introduction of Grouping of Villages in Mizoram, Delhi.
  13. Pachuau, Rintluanga (1993) : ” Khawiah Nge Mizoram In Dah?” ( in Mizo), Mizoram Science Journal, August 1993.
  14. Pachuau, Rintluanga (2009) : Mizoram : A Study in Comprehensive Geography, Northern Book Centre., New Delhi.
  15. Pachuau,Rintluanga (1994) : Geography of Mizoram, RT Enterprise, Aizawl.
  16. Prasad, R.N. and A.K. Agarwal (1991) : Political and Economic Development of Mizoram, Mittal Publication, New Delhi.
  17. Ray, A.C. (1982): Mizoram: A Dynamic of Change, Pearl Publishers, Culcatta.
  18. Remkunga (1980) : Mizo Pi Pute ( Life, Culture and Customs of the Mizos of the Past) (in Mizo), Aizawl.
  19. Satellite Remote Sensing Survey of Mizoram, Report Vol-I, 1979, Natural Remote Sensing Agency, India.
  20. Sarkar, K. and D.R. Nandy : Structure and Tectonics of Tripura – Mizoram Area: India, GSI Misc. Pub. Part I.
  21. Sen, J.D. (1989) : “Industrial Development in Mizoram – Progress and Achievements of Industries Department”, Mizoram Souvenir, SI.No !, Aizawl.
  22. Siama, V.L. (1967) : Mizo History (in Mizo), Aijal, 1st Edition.
  23. Singh, S.N (1994) : Mizoram : Historical, Geographical, Social, Economic, Political and Administrative, Mittal Publications, New Delhi.
  24. Soppit, C.A. (1976) : A Short Account of Kuki-Lushai Tribes, Aizawl, Reprint.
  25. Statistical Handbook of Mizoram, 1987, 1989, 2003 & 2006, 2008 Economics & Statistics Department, Mizoram.
  26. Thanga, Lal Biak ( 1978) : The Mizos : A Study in Racial Personality, Gauhati.
  27. Vumson : Zo History, Aizawl.
  28. Zawla, K. (1964) : Mizo Pi Pute leh An Thlahte Chanchin (in Mizo), Aizawl.

Suggeted Readings for Practicals :

  1. Monkhouse, F.J. (1967)  :  Maps and Diagrams, Methuen, London.
  2. Singh, R.L. (1970)  :  Elements of Practical Geography, Banaras.
  3. Kanitkar, T.P. (1974)  :  Surveying and Leveling, Poona Vidyarthi Griha Prakashan, Pune.
  4. Misra, R.P. and Ramesh,A. (1986)  :  Fundamentals of Cartography, McMillan Co., New Delhi.
  5. Robinson, A.H. et al. (1995)  :  Elements of Cartography, John Wiley and Sons, USA.
  6. Sarkar, A. (1997)  :  Practical Geography : A Systematic Approach, Orient Longman, Kolkata.
  7. Kraak, (2004)  :  Cartography, Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. Ltc.
  8. Sarkar, A.K. (1997)  :  Practical Geography, Orient Longman, Kolkata.
  9. Khan, Z.A.   :  Text Book of Practical Geography
  10. Misra, R.P. & Ramesh, A. (1988)  :  Fundamental of Geography, Concept,          .
  11. Monkhouse, F.J. (1967)  :  Maps & Diagrams, Methuen, London.
  12. Raize, I. (1982)  :  Principles of Cartography, McGraw Hill, N.Y.
  13. Mahmood Aslam, (1973)  :  Statistical Methods in Geography, Concept, New Delhi.
  14. Pal, S.K. (1998)  :  Statistics for Geoscientists, Concept, New Delhi.
  15. Young, P.V.  :  Scientific Social Surveys & Research.
  16. Kothari, C.R., (2004) : Research Methodology, Methods and Techniques., New Age International Publishers.